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Category: History


By Ashley Riley 0 Comment January 14, 2021

According to Aristotle, Virtue is a habit of preferences. It is the habit of being in the middle about us, which a sane person chooses by using his mind. Aristotle divides the concept of “virtue” into two for himself. Intellectual virtue and character virtue. While the source of intellectual virtues is education, the source of […]

End Justification the Means

By Ashley Riley 0 Comment January 10, 2021

Ethical debates should be made in this discourse of Machiavelli. Rather than referring to Immanuel Kant’s debates on universal morality, if we examine it more simply, where the goal legitimates the means, it is important what the goal is, to whom and to what it is good. Since I think that politics should not be […]

Elitist Plurality

By Ashley Riley 0 Comment January 10, 2021

As power is unevenly distributed in non-homogeneous societies, elites significantly influence political outcomes / events due to their strong strategic position. For example, according to Mills, there are 3 types of elite groups. These are political leaders, military leaders, and managers of large companies. These three groups form an elite class and share power. Because they share […]


By Ashley Riley 0 Comment December 29, 2020

Let’s examine the perspectives of these three famous thinkers who made great contributions to the science of sociology.   According to Weber, Societies become rational with each passing time. The reason for this is the need for information. A bureaucracy arises since it will bring specialization as well as knowledge. This bureaucracy is similar to […]

3D Power

By Ashley Riley 0 Comment December 17, 2020

According to Steven Lukes who is a British political and social theorist, power has 3 dimensions. The first of these is the concept he calls “One Dimensional Power”. According to this concept, it is a successful venture where A gets B do something that B would not otherwise do. It is the power that A […]

Inputs and Outputs in Systems

By Ashley Riley 0 Comment December 13, 2020

System theory explains the functions of politics by applying its analysis. It is about how authoritarian decisions are made in a society and how those decisions are implemented. The boundary of the political system is determined by all actions whose consequences concern society. This system has inputs and outputs. Entries are requests from the public. […]


By Ashley Riley 0 Comment December 10, 2020

Gramsci says that the ownership of the means of production is not the grant of the ruling class monopolizing power over society. In order to maintain its leadership and dominance, the ruling class has to win the support of other members of society, which it provides through “hegemony”. He does not believe that the ruling […]

Be nice, Share Slices

By Ashley Riley 0 Comment December 8, 2020

The term pizza comes from the Latin verb “pinsere” which means : crush and grind. Pizza has been consumed for centuries as the indispensable flavor of the poor Italian people with the combination of mozzarella cheese and tomatoes. The story of his worldwide fame is even stranger. According to sources, it began in 1889 when […]

Ring of Gyges

By Ashley Riley 0 Comment December 8, 2020

Gyges is a shepherd in the service of the Lydian king. One day the ground cracks due to a hurricane or an earthquake, and a deep cleft opens where the animals graze. Descending into this cleft, the shepherd finds a bronze horse with a hollow inside and a hole on the top. When you bend […]


By Ashley Riley 0 Comment November 30, 2020

Leviathan thoroughly contends that respectful peace and social solidarity are best accomplished by the foundation of a commonwealth through social contract. Hobbes’s perfect commonwealth is ruled by a majestic control capable for ensuring the security of the commonwealth and allowed outright specialist to guarantee the common defense. In his presentation, Hobbes portrays this commonwealth as […]