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By Ashley Riley 0 Comment January 10, 2021

John Locke lived later than Hobbes, and it coincided with the “Glorious Revolution” era. According to Locke, Leviathan is a state where people protect themselves but are content with allegiance to power. The reason people feel safe is that people are watched over by a “lion”. From Locke’s point of view, human beings are in a position to make rational decisions even in the state of nature. Unlike Hobbes, Locke argues that in the state of nature man is truly free and in true peace and believes that human rights are innate. Because man is rational, he knows that any wrong and harmful action will return to him. Moreover, every human being has a natural right to protect his freedom, existence, material and spirituality. In the case of the rights of nature, every person has the right to punish. Under these conditions, according to Locke, conflicts can arise over property, as people in the state of nature will feel the need to protect their property. In these conflicts, people can be punished according to their own understanding because there are no specific laws or established norms. Since this can also create confusion, people can move into Hobbes’s “state of war”. According to Locke, people need the state in this regard, and the contract is made on this openness. But unlike Hobbes, the duty of the state should only be “night watchman”. (The absence of an ontological hierarchy in Locke’s system was a very high-level thought breakthrough for that period.)



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