By Ashley Riley
Gramsci says that the ownership of the means of production is not the grant of the ruling class monopolizing power over society. In order to maintain its leadership and dominance, the ruling class has to win the support of other members of society, which it provides through “hegemony”. He does not believe that the ruling class can rely on false consciousness to assure itself; because both classes are aware of exploitation. In the east, the ruling class moves its power to the sovereignty of the state, which is While in debt, the force apparatus is relatively less important in the West, and the main element from which the government takes its power is the consent of the oppressed to the system that oppresses them.
If the ruling class is no longer ruling but simply dominant, it uses its coercive power. The power of coercion also does not give positive results in some cases. This means that the masses do not believe in the hegemony established by the sovereign power. According to Gramsci, crisis takes action if there is mass consciousness. The mass consciousness is provided by those who come from the class in question, which he describes as organic intellectuals. If this mass consciousness is ready, the revolutionary reflex of the society may be in question. But for this revolutionary movement the consciousness of the masses must be developed. But the state and the ruling classes continue their actions in order to maintain their relationship and increase their income by continuing to exploit. In this case, the bourgeois uses the passive revolution to stop the revolutionary potential. It accepts some requests from grassroots. However, some things can be criticized as “utopian” or “not realized”. But its victories for fear of “realizable” are a success. We do not work 20 hours a day, thanks to those who have achieved the passive or active* revolution, even in front of bullets.
There is a situation of counter hegemony. When the current hegemony can no longer give a social response, a “war of maneuver” begins with a counter-hegemony based on the words that the people constituting the hegemony are missing or not fulfilled. According to Gramsci, not only is a “war of position” (seizing the state), it must also receive social consent with a counter hegemony.
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