By Ashley Riley
Many of the conflicts in today are connected to the nationalism, but nationalism is not always a bad concept. If people’s of any country support the civic nationalism, there is no problem at there. However, ethnic nationalism is a totally different concept. There is an opinion that any nation is superior to others in ethnic nationalism. Because of ethnic nationalism many people had been killed, and murdered in their homelands; however, civic nationalism should be increased and people should live together with the help of same cultural heritage which is humanity. Many of the civil wars and conflicts all around the World are related to the nationalism. Yet, nationalism did not lead to these events alone, besides nationalism, politic, economic and human rights violations created problems in many regions of the World.
First of all, if we want to understand origins of the nationalism, we should look at the 18th century in terms of politics and this lead us to analyze The French Revolution. That revolution had created a lot of conflicts in Europe. After that there was a time namely, ‘’Reign of Terror’’. Those times a lot of people died because of economic and ideologistic approaches of government. One of the most important reasons behind nationalism is that people who have the blood of their ancestors, that is, people of the same origin, want to have common cultural and economic values. According to Cederman (2019), Nationalism spread in Western Europe in the 19th century and began to become ethnic. In countries such as Italy and Germany, namely in Eastern Europe, where the country and the citizen’s do not match, nations sought to unite or seperate themselves (Cederman, 2019). And these countries completed their political troops late, compared to other European countries, Italy in 1870 and Germany in 1871. Those unifications led to the two World wars which are the biggest wars happened in our history. In the Wimmer’s article(2019), he mentions speech of Steinmeier who is the President of the Germany, he claims that: ‘’Nationalism is an ideological poison.’’(Wimmer, 2019), and those huge wars shows us that is true. The emergence of statesmen with modern thoughts from a state that followed fascist policies during the Second World War is high of political significance in order not to once again feel the etnichally motivated suffering in the past.
Second important thing lying behind these conflicts are economic reasons. For instance, in the Burundi case, most of the conflicts come after the de-colonization of the African countries which is connected to the economic issues. Still today, due to non-existence of proper land reforms and not enough judge’s sanction power, Burundi is suffering a lot. According to The Economist (2008), the main determinant of the conflicts is the low amount of national income per capita, the low growth or contraction of the country’s economy, and the high dependence on needs such as essential oil, and their expulsion greatly increase the chances of civil war. Also World Bank claims that if the national income is doubled, the possibility of a civil war is halved. In addition, when the export rate of basic products rises to %30, there is a possibility of war in a ratio of one third (The Economist, 2008). Those statistics are frightening, but we should aware of that numbers. Burundi’s situation is also same, According to Keenan: ‘’Most burundians rely on subsistence farming yet many barely have enough land to sustain themselves. Today, the average farm is just over one acre’’ (Keenan, 2015). When the citizens of Burundi after the conflicts thanks to the UN, people who have escaped from ethnic conflicts and returned to their country, encounter different people who have begun to cultivate their on land when they return to their ancestral lands for centuries. To overcome these events, people who are already overwhelmed by conflicts are seeking justice in the assemblies gathered by the elders of the people. This cultural heritage is not always succesful and can cause conflicts, so the UN’s presence in the region is carrying great importance and shows us once again how big the need for land reform is.
Although economic and political rights are basic and important rights, the fact that there are governments that cannot provide their citizens with the right to live still pose a major problem for sustaining world peace. Another problem arises from the inability of the UN to adapt international laws at the local level. If local characteristics can be analyzed better in applications, the possibility of sustaining World peace will be much higher. According to Autesserre (2019), The main problem is that the UN does not look behind the practises that it is implementing and that what is accepted globally is tried to be imposed at the local level. If the UN wants to avoid this, it should look at what it has experienced before and accept local realities and follow strategies according to local realities. It will be enough to look into the pockets of peace and see the victims of war (Autesserre, 2019). Human rights can be protected more effectively in this way. There are other answers to the question of why World peace is still not achieved. Again according to Autesserre (2019), The supremacy of UN principles creates resentment among the local pople. Local people are constantly complaining that UN staff are generously accomodated, cool SUVs are driving, arrogant and derogatory, spending too much time to rest, and actually spending too little time doing their jobs. Local media regard them as parasites fort he country and, at worst, describe them as bandits. Fair or not, even if the locals support what the UN wants to do, they refuse to cooperate wtih the UN, when they see those things (Autesserre, 2019).
When we look at the places where there is a crisis, we can easily realize that the reasons are caused by the lack of economic, political or basic human rights. Even if we do want reliable and sustainable World peace today, we cannot create an atmosphere like that due to what happens in the World as I mentioned. We should hug more deeply than ever before to our basic rights, economic freedoms, and our political rights so as not to live in situations like that. And we must not forget that also we may experience such events, we need to understand and help people’s needs. We must remember what happened in Bosnia, Somalia, Burundi, Congo, Sudan and many other places, to figure out the importance of our political, economic and fundamental human rights.
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