By Ashley Riley
In historiography, we ignored this important multiplier, as the value of the individuals who make up the society in the transitions from feudalism to aristocracy, from aristocracy to the bourgeoisie, is just emerging in the cosmic calendar. For example, in the French Revolution, of course, there were intellectuals influenced by Jean Jacque Rousseau and Montesquie, but most of the crowds walking in the streets were unaware of these philosophers. The news that the revolution had been accomplished went to Lyon, which is 4 hours away from Paris, in 3 months. As we cannot expect the Russian peasants marching to the Tsar’s palace to discuss dialectics and determinism among themselves, we cannot mention that individuals’ lives are affected by the new political changes unless there are sharp revolutions. Throughout history, people have come to the streets in many different places in many different situations, the important thing is the thought and leadership that can turn this dynamism into revolution. I don’t think it is worth mentioning separately that the elements that make up this dynamism and the staff are the books, but it will definitely be more useful to examine how the books provide this change.
According to August Comte, humanity has gone through 3 stages. The first of these was what we call the Theological Stage, or the Pre-Humanist period, when the facts were explained with God. In this period, European people lived in any village in Europe, which we can define as separate city-states before nation-states were formed, and the majority lived a different daily life from other places. This phase, in which most people died physically and intellectually at a distance of no more than 10 kilometers from their birthplace, has undergone a separate transformation with the emergence of the first mass media book. With the invention of the book, people can now witness different lives, have the chance to see different emotions and establish a bond with different people, where common pleasures and senses are united on the basis. Humanity had now entered the period we call the Metaphysical Period, in which the subject and events are explained in abstract terms. From that moment on, human, not God, was placed at the center of the world design. This mental revolution was now expected to move into phase 3. What needs to be noted during the transition to this Phase is that this transition is not a revolutionary leap but an evolutionary progression. Because it was not a revolutionary leap, it did not face the difficulties of the unaccounted problems that these leaps brought along, and Gutenberg’s printing press brought humanity to Stage 3. At this stage, man was now turning to what he could observe and dealing with the inalienable links between events. Mind was at the center of world design.
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